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작성자 학습하는이 작성일21-10-17 10:15 조회251회 댓글0건

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COVID 바이러스에 대한 자연 노출 면역이 백신 유도 면역과 유사하거나 우수하다는 증거가 있으며, 이 백신을 건강한 군과 경찰에게 강제/의무화해야 합니까?

 

Paul Alexander 20211015

 

이 의견 기사에 표현된 견해는 작성자의 개인적인 견해이며 반드시 TrialSite의 견해는 아닙니다. 무료로 읽고 공유할 수 있습니다.

 

저자

Paul Elias Alexander, PhD,

Dr. Ramin Oskoui, MD,

Dr. Peter McCullough, MD

 

나는 COVID 주사에 의해 부여되는 좁은 '스파이크 특정' 미성숙 면역보다 자연 면역이 우월하다고 주장합니다. 그러나 사용 가능한 증거를 직접 평가하고 판단할 수 있습니다. NIAIDAnthony Fauci, CDCRochelle Walensky, NIHFrancis Collins가 자연 면역을 백신 면역과 유사하거나 심지어 더 우수한 것으로 인정하는 것을 거부하는 것은 터무니없고 비과학적이며 완전히 터무니없는 일입니다. 우리는 이전에 우리 아이들이 (생물학적 및 분자적 증거에 기초하여) 이미 면역이 있고 예방 접종을 받은 것으로 간주되어야 하며 이러한 차선의, 비멸균, 불필요한 주사로 아이들을 내버려 두어야 한다고 말했습니다. 이제 우리는 군대와 경찰에 대해서도 똑같이 말합니다. 그들이 개인적인 정보에 입각한 결정을 내릴 수 있는 동시에 COVID로 인한 심각한 결과에 대한 위험이 현저히 낮기 때문에 백신 명령으로 그들을 지옥에 내버려 두십시오! 이러한 안전하지 않은 주사로 우리는 잠재적으로 군대와 경찰에 불필요한 피해와 사망을 초래할 수 있습니다. 우리의 최고의 사람들(사실상 모든 사람)이 이익과 해로움(위험)의 균형을 유지하도록 허용하십시오. 특히 그들이 이미 COVID에서 회복되었고 풍부하고 강력하며 살균력이 있는 평생 자연 면역을 얻은 경우 더욱 그렇습니다. 하나면 끝! 적절한 사전 동의를 허용합니다(처음으로). 뉘른베르크 윤리 강령 등을 따르십시오. 다음은 COVID-19와 관련하여 자연 면역 대 백신 면역에 대한 기존 증거입니다(1).

 

이것은 COVID-19 백신 유도 면역과 비교하여 자연 면역에 대한 최고 품질의 완전하고 가장 강력한 과학적 연구 및 증거 보고서/입장 진술의 70개 이상의 가장 업데이트되고 포괄적인 라이브러리 목록을 나타내며 자신의 결론을 도출할 수 있도록 합니다.

 

 

1: 20211015일 기준 자연 면역 대 COVID-19 백신 유도 면역에 대한 증거

 

1.  Necessity of COVID-19 vaccination in previously infected individuals

Shrestha, 2021

 

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74. Assessment of protection against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 among 4 million PCR-tested individuals in Denmark in 2020: a population-level observational study

Holm Hansen, 2021

 

 

위의 증거로부터 어떤 결론을 내릴 수 있습니까? 군대와 경찰(및 어린이), 그리고 실제로 COVID에서 회복된 사람(백신을 강제/의무화함)에 대한 백신 접종은 과학적 또는 의학적 근거가 없으며 극도로 해로울 수 있으며 심지어 치명적일 수 있습니다. 우리가 위에서 제시한 집단 문헌 증거는 SARS-CoV-2에 의한 자연 감염에 따른 보호 면역이 내구성이 있고 오래 지속된다는 것을 명백히 확립하고 경험적으로 부인할 수 없습니다.

따라서 사회를 두 그룹(백신 접종 대 미접종)으로 분리하려는 이러한 노력은 파괴적이며 과학적 근거가 없습니다. 백신을 의무화하고 백신 접종을 하지 않기로 선택한 사람들을 실업 상태에 빠뜨리려는 이러한 노력은 변명의 여지가 없습니다. 우리는 사람들이 자신의 가치와 선호도 및 필요에 따라 백신 접종 여부를 결정하도록 허용해야 합니다. 과학은 자연적으로 획득한 면역이 이러한 비멸균 COVID-19 백신에 의한 백신 유도 면역과 유사하거나 심지어 더 우수하며 감염에 대해 더 오래 지속되고 더 강력한 보호를 제공한다는 것을 분명히 보여줍니다. 우리 군대와 경찰은 어떠한 보복이나 수입이나 특권의 손실을 두려워하지 않고 독립적으로 결정을 내릴 수 있어야 합니다. 군대와 경찰이 이러한 백신으로 예방 접종을 받아야 하는 이유(강제 및 의무화)는 말도 안되며 의학적 또는 과학적 근거가 없습니다.

 

 

 

원문

 

Is there evidence that natural exposure immunity to COVID virus is similar or superior to vaccine-induced immunity, and should we force/mandate these vaccines on our healthy military and police?

 

Paul Alexander October 15, 2021

 

https://trialsitenews.com/is-there-evidence-that-natural-exposure-immunity-to-covid-virus-is-similar-or-superior-to-vaccine-induced-immunity-and-should-we-force-mandate-these-vaccines-on-our-healthy-military-and-police/

 

Is there evidence that natural exposure immunity to COVID virus is similar or superior to vaccine induced immunity and should we force/mandate these vaccines on our healthy military and police?

 

Note that views expressed in this opinion article are the writer’s personal views and not necessarily those of TrialSite. FREE to read and SHARE without paying.

Authored by Paul Elias Alexander, PhD, Dr. Ramin Oskoui, MD, and Dr. Peter McCullough, MD

I argue for the superiority of natural immunity over the narrow ‘spike-specific’ immature immunity conferred by the COVID injections.  Yet you can assess the available body of evidence yourself and make a judgment. The refusal by NIAID’s Anthony Fauci, CDC’s Rochelle Walensky, and NIH’s Francis Collins to recognize natural immunity as similar to or even superior to vaccine immunity is outrageous, unscientific, and downright absurd. We said before that our children must be considered already immune and vaccinated (based on biological and molecular evidence) and leave them alone with these sub-optimal, non-sterilizing, unneeded injections, and now we say the very same for our militaries and police. Leave them to hell alone with vaccine mandates for they can make personal informed decisions while at the same time being at vanishingly low risk for severe outcome from COVID! We can potentially cause needless harm and death to our military and police with these safety untested injections. Allow our best people (in fact everyone) to balance the benefits and harms (risks) especially if they are already COVID recovered and have gained rich, robust, sterilizing, life-long natural immunity. One and done!  Allow proper informed consent (for the first time). Follow the Nuremberg Code of Ethics etc. Below is the existing body of evidence on natural immunity versus vaccine immunity as it relates to COVID-19 (Table 1). This represents the most updated and comprehensive library list of over 70 of the highest-quality, complete, most robust scientific studies and evidence reports/position statements on natural immunity as compared to the COVID-19 vaccine-induced immunity and allow you to draw your own conclusion:  

 

Table 1: Evidence on natural immunity versus COVID-19 vaccine-induced immunity as of October 15th, 2021

 

Study/report title, author, and year published and interactive url link

 

Predominant finding on natural immunity

 

1) Necessity of COVID-19 vaccination in previously infected individuals, Shrestha, 2021

“Cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was examined among 52,238 employees in an American healthcare system. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection remained almost zero among previously infected unvaccinated subjects, previously infected subjects who were vaccinated, and previously uninfected subjects who were vaccinated, compared with a steady increase in cumulative incidence among previously uninfected subjects who remained unvaccinated. Not one of the 1359 previously infected subjects who remained unvaccinated had a SARS-CoV-2 infection over the duration of the study. Individuals who have had SARS-CoV-2 infection are unlikely to benefit from COVID-19 vaccination

 

2) SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls, Le Bert, 2020

“Studied T cell responses against the structural (nucleocapsid (N) protein) and non-structural (NSP7 and NSP13 of ORF1) regions of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals convalescing from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (n = 36). In all of these individuals, we found CD4 and CD8 T cells that recognized multiple regions of the N proteinshowed that patients (n = 23) who recovered from SARS possess long-lasting memory T cells that are reactive to the N protein of SARS-CoV 17 years after the outbreak of SARS in 2003; these T cells displayed robust cross-reactivity to the N protein of SARS-CoV-2.”

 

3) Comparing SARS-CoV-2 natural immunity to vaccine-induced immunity: reinfections versus breakthrough infections,Gazit, 2021

“A retrospective observational study comparing three groups: (1) SARS-CoV-2-naïve individuals who received a two-dose regimen of the BioNTech/Pfizer mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine, (2) previously infected individuals who have not been vaccinated, and (3) previously infected and single dose vaccinated individuals found para a 13 fold increased risk of breakthrough Delta infections in double vaccinated persons, and a 27 fold increased risk for symptomatic breakthrough infection in the double vaccinated relative to the natural immunity recovered personsthe risk of hospitalization was 8 times higher in the double vaccinated (para)this analysis demonstrated that natural immunity affords longer lasting and stronger protection against infection, symptomatic disease and hospitalization due to the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, compared to the BNT162b2 two-dose vaccine-induced immunity.”

 

4) Highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, Le Bert, 2021

“Studied SARS-CoV-2specific T cells in a cohort of asymptomatic (n = 85) and symptomatic (n = 75) COVID-19 patients after seroconversionthus, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2infected individuals are not characterized by weak antiviral immunity; on the contrary, they mount a highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response.”

 

5) Large-scale study of antibody titer decay following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine or SARS-CoV-2 infection, Israel, 2021

“A total of 2,653 individuals fully vaccinated by two doses of vaccine during the study period and 4,361 convalescent patients were included. Higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers were observed in vaccinated individuals (median 1581 AU/mL IQR [533.8-5644.6]) after the second vaccination, than in convalescent individuals (median 355.3 AU/mL IQR [141.2-998.7]; p<0.001). In vaccinated subjects, antibody titers decreased by up to 40% each subsequent month while in convalescents they decreased by less than 5% per monththis study demonstrates individuals who received the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine have different kinetics of antibody levels compared to patients who had been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, with higher initial levels but a much faster exponential decrease in the first group”.

 

6) SARS-CoV-2 re-infection risk in Austria, Pilz, 2021

Researchers recorded “40 tentative re-infections in 14, 840 COVID-19 survivors of the first wave (0.27%) and 253 581 infections in 8, 885, 640 individuals of the remaining general population (2.85%) translating into an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.09 (0.07 to 0.13)relatively low re-infection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in Austria. Protection against SARS-CoV-2 after natural infection is comparable with the highest available estimates on vaccine efficacies.” Additionally, hospitalization in only five out of 14,840 (0.03%) people and death in one out of 14,840 (0.01%) (tentative re-infection).

 

7) mRNA vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells recognize B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status, Neidleman, 2021

“Spike-specific T cells from convalescent vaccinees differed strikingly from those of infection-naïve vaccinees, with phenotypic features suggesting superior long-term persistence and ability to home to the respiratory tract including the nasopharynx. These results provide reassurance that vaccine-elicited T cells respond robustly to the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants, confirm that convalescents may not need a second vaccine dose.”

 

8) Good news: Mild COVID-19 induces lasting antibody protection, Bhandari, 2021

“Months after recovering from mild cases of COVID-19, people still have immune cells in their body pumping out antibodies against the virus that causes COVID-19, according to a study from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Such cells could persist for a lifetime, churning out antibodies all the while. The findings, published May 24 in the journal Nature, suggest that mild cases of COVID-19 leave those infected with lasting antibody protection and that repeated bouts of illness are likely to be uncommon.”

 

9) Robust neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 infection persist for months, Wajnberg, 2021

“Neutralizing antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein persisted for at least 5 months after infection. Although continued monitoring of this cohort will be needed to confirm the longevity and potency of this response, these preliminary results suggest that the chance of reinfection may be lower than is currently feared.”

 

10) Evolution of Antibody Immunity to SARS-CoV-2, Gaebler, 2020

Concurrently, neutralizing activity in plasma decreases by five-fold in pseudo-type virus assays. In contrast, the number of RBD-specific memory B cells is unchanged. Memory B cells display clonal turnover after 6.2 months, and the antibodies they express have greater somatic hypermutation, increased potency and resistance to RBD mutations, indicative of continued evolution of the humoral responsewe conclude that the memory B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 evolves between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in a manner that is consistent with antigen persistence.”

 

11) Persistence of neutralizing antibodies a year after SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, Haveri, 2021

“Assessed the persistence of serum antibodies following WT SARS-CoV-2 infection at 8 and 13 months after diagnosis in 367 individualsfound that NAb against the WT virus persisted in 89% and S-IgG in 97% of subjects for at least 13 months after infection.”

 

12) Quantifying the risk of SARSCoV2 reinfection over time, Murchu, 2021

“Eleven large cohort studies were identified that estimated the risk of SARSCoV2 reinfection over time, including three that enrolled healthcare workers and two that enrolled residents and staff of elderly care homes. Across studies, the total number of PCRpositive or antibodypositive participants at baseline was 615,777, and the maximum duration of followup was more than 10 months in three studies. Reinfection was an uncommon event (absolute rate 0%1.1%), with no study reporting an increase in the risk of reinfection over time.”

 

13) Natural immunity to covid is powerful. Policymakers seem afraid to say so, Makary, 2021

Makary writes “it’s okay to have an incorrect scientific hypothesis. But when new data proves it wrong, you have to adapt. Unfortunately, many elected leaders and public health officials have held on far too long to the hypothesis that natural immunity offers unreliable protection against covid-19 a contention that is being rapidly debunked by science. More than 15 studies have demonstrated the power of immunity acquired by previously having the virus. A 700,000-person study from Israel two weeks ago found that those who had experienced prior infections were 27 times less likely to get a second symptomatic covid infection than those who were vaccinated. This affirmed a June Cleveland Clinic study of health-care workers (who are often exposed to the virus), in which none who had previously tested positive for the coronavirus got reinfected. The study authors concluded that “individuals who have had SARS-CoV-2 infection are unlikely to benefit from covid-19 vaccination.” And in May, a Washington University study found that even a mild covid infection resulted in long-lasting immunity.”

 

14) SARS-CoV-2 elicits robust adaptive immune responses regardless of disease severity, Nielsen, 2021

“203 recovered SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in Denmark between April 3rd and July 9th 2020, at least 14 days after COVID-19 symptom recoveryreport broad serological profiles within the cohort, detecting antibody binding to other human coronavirusesthe viral surface spike protein was identified as the dominant target for both neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T-cell responses. Overall, the majority of patients had robust adaptive immune responses, regardless of their disease severity.”

 

15) Protection of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is similar to that of BNT162b2 vaccine protection: A three-month nationwide experience from Israel, Goldberg, 2021

“Analyze an updated individual-level database of the entire population of Israel to assess the protection efficacy of both prior infection and vaccination in preventing subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization with COVID-19, severe disease, and death due to COVID-19vaccination was highly effective with overall estimated efficacy for documented infection of 92·8% (CI:[92·6, 93·0]); hospitalization 94·2% (CI:[93·6, 94·7]); severe illness 94·4% (CI:[93·6, 95·0]); and death 93·7% (CI:[92·5, 94·7]). Similarly, the overall estimated level of protection from prior SARS-CoV-2 infection for documented infection is 94·8% (CI: [94·4, 95·1]); hospitalization 94·1% (CI: [91·9, 95·7]); and severe illness 96·4% (CI: [92·5, 98·3])results question the need to vaccinate previously-infected individuals.”

 

16) Incidence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 infection among previously infected or vaccinated employees, Kojima, 2021

“Employees were divided into three groups: (1) SARS-CoV-2 naïve and unvaccinated, (2) previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and (3) vaccinated. Person-days were measured from the date of the employee first test and truncated at the end of the observation period. SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as two positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests in a 30-day period4313, 254 and 739 employee records for groups 1, 2, and 3previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 were associated with decreased risk for infection or re-infection with SARS-CoV-2 in a routinely screened workforce. The was no difference in the infection incidence between vaccinated individuals and individuals with previous infection.”

 

17) Having SARS-CoV-2 once confers much greater immunity than a vaccinebut vaccination remains vital, Wadman, 2021

“Israelis who had an infection were more protected against the Delta coronavirus variant than those who had an already highly effective COVID-19 vaccinethe newly released data show people who once had a SARS-CoV-2 infection were much less likely than never-infected, vaccinated people to get Delta, develop symptoms from it, or become hospitalized with serious COVID-19.”

 

18) One-year sustained cellular and humoral immunities of COVID-19 convalescents, Zhang, 2021

“A systematic antigen-specific immune evaluation in 101 COVID-19 convalescents; SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies, and also NAb can persist among over 95% COVID-19 convalescents from 6 months to 12 months after disease onset. At least 19/71 (26%) of COVID-19 convalescents (double positive in ELISA and MCLIA) had detectable circulating IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2 at 12m post-disease onset. Notably, the percentages of convalescents with positive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses (at least one of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen S1, S2, M and N protein) were 71/76 (93%) and 67/73 (92%) at 6m and 12m, respectively.”

 

19) Functional SARS-CoV-2-Specific Immune Memory Persists after Mild COVID-19, Rodda, 2021

“Recovered individuals developed SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies, neutralizing plasma, and memory B and memory T cells that persisted for at least 3 months. Our data further reveal that SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG memory B cells increased over time. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2-specific memory lymphocytes exhibited characteristics associated with potent antiviral function: memory T cells secreted cytokines and expanded upon antigen re-encounter, whereas memory B cells expressed receptors capable of neutralizing virus when expressed as monoclonal antibodies. Therefore, mild COVID-19 elicits memory lymphocytes that persist and display functional hallmarks of antiviral immunity.”

 

20) Discrete Immune Response Signature to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination Versus Infection, Ivanova, 2021

“Performed multimodal single-cell sequencing on peripheral blood of patients with acute COVID-19 and healthy volunteers before and after receiving the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to compare the immune responses elicited by the virus and by this vaccineboth infection and vaccination induced robust innate and adaptive immune responses, our analysis revealed significant qualitative differences between the two types of immune challenges. In COVID-19 patients, immune responses were characterized by a highly augmented interferon response which was largely absent in vaccine recipients. Increased interferon signaling likely contributed to the observed dramatic upregulation of cytotoxic genes in the peripheral T cells and innate-like lymphocytes in patients but not in immunized subjects. Analysis of B and T cell receptor repertoires revealed that while the majority of clonal B and T cells in COVID-19 patients were effector cells, in vaccine recipients clonally expanded cells were primarily circulating memory cellswe observed the presence of cytotoxic CD4 T cells in COVID-19 patients that were largely absent in healthy volunteers following immunization. While hyper-activation of inflammatory responses and cytotoxic cells may contribute to immunopathology in severe illness, in mild and moderate disease, these features are indicative of protective immune responses and resolution of infection.”

 

21) SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans, Turner, 2021

“Bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) are a persistent and essential source of protective antibodiesdurable serum antibody titres are maintained by long-lived plasma cellsnon-replicating, antigen-specific plasma cells that are detected in the bone marrow long after the clearance of the antigen S-binding BMPCs are quiescent, which suggests that they are part of a stable compartment. Consistently, circulating resting memory B cells directed against SARS-CoV-2 S were detected in the convalescent individuals. Overall, our results indicate that mild infection with SARS-CoV-2 induces robust antigen-specific, long-lived humoral immune memory in humansoverall, our data provide strong evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans robustly establishes the two arms of humoral immune memory: long-lived bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) and memory B-cells.”

 

22) SARS-CoV-2 infection rates of antibody-positive compared with antibody-negative health-care workers in England: a large, multicentre, prospective cohort study (SIREN), Jane Hall, 2021

“The SARS-CoV-2 Immunity and Reinfection Evaluation study30625 participants were enrolled into the studya previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with an 84% lower risk of infection, with median protective effect observed 7 months following primary infection. This time period is the minimum probable effect because seroconversions were not included. This study shows that previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 induces effective immunity to future infections in most individuals.”

 

23) Pandemic peak SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion rates in London frontline health-care workers, Houlihan, 2020

“Enrolled 200 patient-facing HCWs between March 26 and April 8, 2020represents a 13% infection rate (i.e. 14 of 112 HCWs) within the 1 month of follow-up in those with no evidence of antibodies or viral shedding at enrolment. By contrast, of 33 HCWs who tested positive by serology but tested negative by RT-PCR at enrolment, 32 remained negative by RT-PCR through follow-up, and one tested positive by RT-PCR on days 8 and 13 after enrolment.”

 

24) Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are associated with protection against reinfection, Lumley, 2021

“Critical to understand whether infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) protects from subsequent reinfection12219 HCWs participatedprior SARS-CoV-2 infection that generated antibody responses offered protection from reinfection for most people in the six months following infection.”

 

25) Longitudinal analysis shows durable and broad immune memory after SARS-CoV-2 infection with persisting antibody responses and memory B and T cells, Cohen, 2021

“Evaluate 254 COVID-19 patients longitudinally up to 8 months and find durable broad-based immune responses. SARS-CoV-2 spike binding and neutralizing antibodies exhibit a bi-phasic decay with an extended half-life of >200 days suggesting the generation of longer-lived plasma cellsmost recovered COVID-19 patients mount broad, durable immunity after infection, spike IgG+ memory B cells increase and persist post-infection, durable polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cells recognize distinct viral epitope regions.”

 

26) Single cell profiling of T and B cell repertoires following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine, Sureshchandra, 2021

“Used single-cell RNA sequencing and functional assays to compare humoral and cellular responses to two doses of mRNA vaccine with responses observed in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic diseasenatural infection induced expansion of larger CD8 T cell clones occupied distinct clusters, likely due to the recognition of a broader set of viral epitopes presented by the virus not seen in the mRNA vaccine.”

 

27) SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positivity protects against reinfection for at least seven months with 95% efficacy, Abu-Raddad, 2021

“SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive persons from April 16 to December 31, 2020 with a PCR-positive swab 14 days after the first-positive antibody test were investigated for evidence of reinfection, 43,044 antibody-positive persons who were followed for a median of 16.3 weeksreinfection is rare in the young and international population of Qatar. Natural infection appears to elicit strong protection against reinfection with an efficacy ~95% for at least seven months.”

 

28) Orthogonal SARS-CoV-2 Serological Assays Enable Surveillance of Low-Prevalence Communities and Reveal Durable Humoral Immunity, Ripperger, 2020

“Conducted a serological study to define correlates of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Compared to those with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, individuals with severe disease exhibited elevated virus-neutralizing titers and antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike proteinneutralizing and spike-specific antibody production persists for at least 57 monthsnucleocapsid antibodies frequently become undetectable by 57 months.”

 

29) Anti-spike antibody response to natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population, Wei, 2021

“In the general population using representative data from 7,256 United Kingdom COVID-19 infection survey participants who had positive swab SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests from 26-April-2020 to 14-June-2021we estimated antibody levels associated with protection against reinfection likely last 1.5-2 years on average, with levels associated with protection from severe infection present for several years. These estimates could inform planning for vaccination booster strategies.”

 

30) Antibody Status and Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers, Lumley, 2021

“12,541 health care workers participated and had anti-spike IgG measured; 11,364 were followed up after negative antibody results and 1265 after positive results, including 88 in whom seroconversion occurred during follow-upa total of 223 anti-spikeseronegative health care workers had a positive PCR test (1.09 per 10,000 days at risk), 100 during screening while they were asymptomatic and 123 while symptomatic, whereas 2 anti-spikeseropositive health care workers had a positive PCR testthe presence of anti-spike or anti-nucleocapsid IgG antibodies was associated with a substantially reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in the ensuing 6 months.”

 

31) Researchers find long-lived immunity to 1918 pandemic virus, CIDRAP, 2008

and the actual 2008 NATURE journal publication by Yu“A study of the blood of older people who survived the 1918 influenza pandemic reveals that antibodies to the strain have lasted a lifetime and can perhaps be engineered to protect future generations against similar strainsthe group collected blood samples from 32 pandemic survivors aged 91 to 101..the people recruited for the study were 2 to 12 years old in 1918 and many recalled sick family members in their households, which suggests they were directly exposed to the virus, the authors report. The group found that 100% of the subjects had serum-neutralizing activity against the 1918 virus and 94% showed serologic reactivity to the 1918 hemagglutinin. The investigators generated B lymphoblastic cell lines from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight subjects. Transformed cells from the blood of 7 of the 8 donors yielded secreting antibodies that bound the 1918 hemagglutinin.” Yu: “here we show that of the 32 individuals tested that were born in or before 1915, each showed sero-reactivity with the 1918 virus, nearly 90 years after the pandemic. Seven of the eight donor samples tested had circulating B cells that secreted antibodies that bound the 1918 HA. We isolated B cells from subjects and generated five monoclonal antibodies that showed potent neutralizing activity against 1918 virus from three separate donors. These antibodies also cross-reacted with the genetically similar HA of a 1930 swine H1N1 influenza strain.”

 

32) Live virus neutralisation testing in convalescent patients and subjects vaccinated against 19A, 20B, 20I/501Y.V1 and 20H/501Y.V2 isolates of SARS-CoV-2, Gonzalez, 2021

“No significant difference was observed between the 20B and 19A isolates for HCWs with mild COVID-19 and critical patients. However, a significant decrease in neutralisation ability was found for 20I/501Y.V1 in comparison with 19A isolate for critical patients and HCWs 6-months post infection. Concerning 20H/501Y.V2, all populations had a significant reduction in neutralising antibody titres in comparison with the 19A isolate. Interestingly, a significant difference in neutralisation capacity was observed for vaccinated HCWs between the two variants whereas it was not significant for the convalescent groupsthe reduced neutralising response observed towards the 20H/501Y.V2 in comparison with the 19A and 20I/501Y.V1 isolates in fully immunized subjects with the BNT162b2 vaccine is a striking finding of the study.”

 

33) Differential effects of the second SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose on T cell immunity in naïve and COVID-19 recovered individuals, Camara, 2021

“Characterized SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immunity in naïve and previously infected individuals during full BNT162b2 vaccinationresults demonstrate that the second dose increases both the humoral and cellular immunity in naïve individuals. On the contrary, the second BNT162b2 vaccine dose results in a reduction of cellular immunity in COVID-19 recovered individuals.”

 

34) Op-Ed: Quit Ignoring Natural COVID Immunity, Klausner, 2021

“Epidemiologists estimate over 160 million people worldwide have recovered from COVID-19. Those who have recovered have an astonishingly low frequency of repeat infection, disease, or death.”

 

35) Association of SARS-CoV-2 Seropositive Antibody Test With Risk of Future Infection, Harvey, 2021

“To evaluate evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on diagnostic nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) among patients with positive vs negative test results for antibodies in an observational descriptive cohort study of clinical laboratory and linked claims datathe cohort included 3257478 unique patients with an index antibody testpatients with positive antibody test results were initially more likely to have positive NAAT results, consistent with prolonged RNA shedding, but became markedly less likely to have positive NAAT results over time, suggesting that seropositivity is associated with protection from infection.”

 

36) SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and subsequent infection risk in healthy young adults: a prospective cohort study, Letizia, 2021

“Investigated the risk of subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection among young adults (CHARM marine study) seropositive for a previous infectionenrolled 3249 participants, of whom 3168 (98%) continued into the 2-week quarantine period. 3076 (95%) participantsAmong 189 seropositive participants, 19 (10%) had at least one positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the 6-week follow-up (1·1 cases per person-year). In contrast, 1079 (48%) of 2247 seronegative participants tested positive (6·2 cases per person-year). The incidence rate ratio was 0·18 (95% CI 0·110·28; p<0·001)infected seropositive participants had viral loads that were about 10-times lower than those of infected seronegative participants (ORF1ab gene cycle threshold difference 3·95 [95% CI 1·236·67]; p=0·004).”

 

37) Associations of Vaccination and of Prior Infection With Positive PCR Test Results for SARS-CoV-2 in Airline Passengers Arriving in Qatar, Bertollini, 2021

“Of 9,180 individuals with no record of vaccination but with a record of prior infection at least 90 days before the PCR test (group 3), 7694 could be matched to individuals with no record of vaccination or prior infection (group 2), among whom PCR positivity was 1.01% (95% CI, 0.80%-1.26%) and 3.81% (95% CI, 3.39%-4.26%), respectively. The relative risk for PCR positivity was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.17-0.28) for vaccinated individuals and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.21-0.34) for individuals with prior infection compared with no record of vaccination or prior infection.”

 

38) Natural immunity against COVID-19 significantly reduces the risk of reinfection: findings from a cohort of sero-survey participants, Mishra, 2021

“Followed up with a subsample of our previous sero-survey participants to assess whether natural immunity against SARS-CoV-2 was associated with a reduced risk of re-infection (India)out of the 2238 participants, 1170 were sero-positive and 1068 were sero-negative for antibody against COVID-19. Our survey found that only 3 individuals in the sero-positive group got infected with COVID-19 whereas 127 individuals reported contracting the infection the sero-negative groupfrom the 3 sero-positives re-infected with COVID-19, one had hospitalization, but did not require oxygen support or critical caredevelopment of antibody following natural infection not only protects against re-infection by the virus to a great extent, but also safeguards against progression to severe COVID-19 disease.”

 

39) Lasting immunity found after recovery from COVID-19, NIH, 2021

“The researchers found durable immune responses in the majority of people studied. Antibodies against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which the virus uses to get inside cells, were found in 98% of participants one month after symptom onset. As seen in previous studies, the number of antibodies ranged widely between individuals. But, promisingly, their levels remained fairly stable over time, declining only modestly at 6 to 8 months after infectionvirus-specific B cells increased over time. People had more memory B cells six months after symptom onset than at one month afterwardslevels of T cells for the virus also remained high after infection. Six months after symptom onset, 92% of participants had CD4+ T cells that recognized the virus95% of the people had at least 3 out of 5 immune-system components that could recognize SARS-CoV-2 up to 8 months after infection.”

 

40) SARS-CoV-2 Natural Antibody Response Persists for at Least 12 Months in a Nationwide Study From the Faroe Islands, Petersen, 2021

“The seropositive rate in the convalescent individuals was above 95% at all sampling time points for both assays and remained stable over time; that is, almost all convalescent individuals developed antibodiesresults show that SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persisted at least 12 months after symptom onset and maybe even longer, indicating that COVID-19-convalescent individuals may be protected from reinfection.”

 

41) SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell memory is sustained in COVID-19 convalescent patients for 10 months with successful development of stem cell-like memory T cells, Jung, 2021

“ex vivo assays to evaluate SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in COVID-19 convalescent patients up to 317 days post-symptom onset (DPSO), and find that memory T cell responses are maintained during the study period regardless of the severity of COVID-19. In particular, we observe sustained polyfunctionality and proliferation capacity of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. Among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells detected by activation-induced markers, the proportion of stem cell-like memory T (TSCM) cells is increased, peaking at approximately 120 DPSO.”

 

42) Immune Memory in Mild COVID-19 Patients and Unexposed Donors Reveals Persistent T Cell Responses After SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Ansari, 2021

“Analyzed 42 unexposed healthy donors and 28 mild COVID-19 subjects up to 5 months from the recovery for SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory. Using HLA class II predicted peptide megapools, we identified SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive CD4+ T cells in around 66% of the unexposed individuals. Moreover, we found detectable immune memory in mild COVID-19 patients several months after recovery in the crucial arms of protective adaptive immunity; CD4+ T cells and B cells, with a minimal contribution from CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, the persistent immune memory in COVID-19 patients is predominantly targeted towards the Spike glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2. This study provides the evidence of both high magnitude pre-existing and persistent immune memory in Indian population.”

 

43) COVID-19 natural immunity, WHO, 2021

“Current evidence points to most individuals developing strong protective immune responses following natural infection with SARSCoV-2. Within 4 weeks following infection, 90-99% of individuals infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus develop detectable neutralizing antibodies. The strength and duration of the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 are not completely understood and currently available data suggests that it varies by age and the severity of symptoms. Available scientific data suggests that in most people immune responses remain robust and protective against reinfection for at least 6-8 months after infection (the longest follow up with strong scientific evidence is currently approximately 8 months).”

 

44) Antibody Evolution after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination, Cho, 2021

“We conclude that memory antibodies selected over time by natural infection have greater potency and breadth than antibodies elicited by vaccinationboosting vaccinated individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines would produce a quantitative increase in plasma neutralizing activity but not the qualitative advantage against variants obtained by vaccinating convalescent individuals.”

 

45) Humoral Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 in Iceland, Gudbjartsson, 2020

“Measured antibodies in serum samples from 30,576 persons in Icelandof the 1797 persons who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection, 1107 of the 1215 who were tested (91.1%) were seropositiveresults indicate risk of death from infection was 0.3% and that antiviral antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 did not decline within 4 months after diagnosis (para).”

 

46) Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection, Dan, 2021

“Analyzed multiple compartments of circulating immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in 254 samples from 188 COVID-19 cases, including 43 samples at 6 months post-infectionIgG to the Spike protein was relatively stable over 6+ months. Spike-specific memory B cells were more abundant at 6 months than at 1 month post symptom onset.”

 

47) The prevalence of adaptive immunity to COVID-19 and reinfection after recovery a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 011 447 individuals, Chivese, 2021

“Fifty-four studies, from 18 countries, with a total of 12 011 447 individuals, followed up to 8 months after recovery, were included. At 6-8 months after recovery, the prevalence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory remained high; IgG 90.4%pooled prevalence of reinfection was 0.2% (95%CI 0.0 0.7, I2 = 98.8, 9 studies). Individuals who recovered from COVID-19 had an 81% reduction in odds of a reinfection (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.1 0.3, I2 = 90.5%, 5 studies).”

 

48) Reinfection Rates among Patients who Previously Tested Positive for COVID-19: a Retrospective Cohort Study, Sheehan, 2021“Retrospective cohort study of one multi-hospital health system included 150,325 patients tested for COVID-19 infectionprior infection in patients with COVID-19 was highly protective against reinfection and symptomatic disease. This protection increased over time, suggesting that viral shedding or ongoing immune response may persist beyond 90 days and may not represent true reinfection.”

 

49) Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection 1 Year After Primary Infection in a Population in Lombardy, Italy, Vitale, 2020

“The study results suggest that reinfections are rare events and patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have a lower risk of reinfection. Natural immunity to SARS-CoV-2 appears to confer a protective effect for at least a year, which is similar to the protection reported in recent vaccine studies.”

 

50) Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with protection against symptomatic reinfection, Hanrath, 2021

“We observed no symptomatic reinfections in a cohort of healthcare workersthis apparent immunity to re-infection was maintained for at least 6 monthstest positivity rates were 0% (0/128 [95% CI: 02.9]) in those with previous infection compared to 13.7% (290/2115 [95% CI: 12.315.2]) in those without (P<0.0001 χ2 test).”

 

51) mRNA vaccine-induced T cells respond identically to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status, Neidleman, 2021

“In infection-naïve individuals, the second dose boosted the quantity and altered the phenotypic properties of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells, while in convalescents the second dose changed neither. Spike-specific T cells from convalescent vaccinees differed strikingly from those of infection-naïve vaccinees, with phenotypic features suggesting superior long-term persistence and ability to home to the respiratory tract including the nasopharynx.”

 

52) Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals, Grifoni, 2020

“Using HLA class I and II predicted peptide “megapools,” circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in 70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. CD4+ T cell responses to spike, the main target of most vaccine efforts, were robust and correlated with the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA titers. The M, spike, and N proteins each accounted for 11%27% of the total CD4+ response, with additional responses commonly targeting nsp3, nsp4, ORF3a, and ORF8, among others. For CD8+ T cells, spike and M were recognized, with at least eight SARS-CoV-2 ORFs targeted.”

 

53) NIH Director’s Blog: Immune T Cells May Offer Lasting Protection Against COVID-19, Collins, 2021

“Much of the study on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, has focused on the production of antibodies. But, in fact, immune cells known as memory T cells also play an important role in the ability of our immune systems to protect us against many viral infections, includingit now appearsCOVID-19.An intriguing new study of these memory T cells suggests they might protect some people newly infected with SARS-CoV-2 by remembering past encounters with other human coronaviruses. This might potentially explain why some people seem to fend off the virus and may be less susceptible to becoming severely ill with COVID-19.”

 

54) Ultrapotent antibodies against diverse and highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, Wang, 2021

“Our study demonstrates that convalescent subjects previously infected with ancestral variant SARS-CoV-2 produce antibodies that cross-neutralize emerging VOCs with high potencypotent against 23 variants, including variants of concern.”

 

55) Why COVID-19 Vaccines Should Not Be Required for All Americans, Makary, 2021

“Requiring the vaccine in people who are already immune with natural immunity has no scientific support. While vaccinating those people may be beneficial and it’s a reasonable hypothesis that vaccination may bolster the longevity of their immunity to argue dogmatically that they must get vaccinated has zero clinical outcome data to back it. As a matter of fact, we have data to the contrary: A Cleveland Clinic study found that vaccinating people with natural immunity did not add to their level of protection.”

 

56) Protracted yet coordinated differentiation of long-lived SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells during COVID-19 convalescence, Ma, 2021

“Screened 21 well-characterized, longitudinally-sampled convalescent donors that recovered from mild COVID-19following a typical case of mild COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells not only persist but continuously differentiate in a coordinated fashion well into convalescence, into a state characteristic of long-lived, self-renewing memory.”

 

57) Decrease in Measles Virus-Specific CD4 T Cell Memory in Vaccinated Subjects, Naniche, 2004

“Characterized the profiles of measles vaccine (MV) vaccine-induced antigen-specific T cells over time since vaccination. In a cross-sectional study of healthy subjects with a history of MV vaccination, we found that MV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells could be detected up to 34 years after vaccination. The levels of MV-specific CD8 T cells and MV-specific IgG remained stable, whereas the level of MV-specific CD4 T cells decreased significantly in subjects who had been vaccinated >21 years earlier.”

 

58) Remembrance of Things Past: Long-Term B Cell Memory After Infection and Vaccination, Palm, 2019

“The success of vaccines is dependent on the generation and maintenance of immunological memory. The immune system can remember previously encountered pathogens, and memory B and T cells are critical in secondary responses to infection. Studies in mice have helped to understand how different memory B cell populations are generated following antigen exposure and how affinity for the antigen is determinant to B cell fateupon re-exposure to an antigen the memory recall response will be faster, stronger, and more specific than a naïve response. Protective memory depends first on circulating antibodies secreted by LLPCs. When these are not sufficient for immediate pathogen neutralization and elimination, memory B cells are recalled.”

 

59) SARS-CoV-2 specific memory B-cells from individuals with diverse disease severities recognize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, Lyski, 2021

“Examined the magnitude, breadth, and durability of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in two distinct B-cell compartments: long-lived plasma cell-derived antibodies in the plasma, and peripheral memory B-cells along with their associated antibody profiles elicited after in vitro stimulation. We found that magnitude varied amongst individuals, but was the highest in hospitalized subjects. Variants of concern (VoC) -RBD-reactive antibodies were found in the plasma of 72% of samples in this investigation, and VoC-RBD-reactive memory B-cells were found in all but 1 subject at a single time-point. This finding, that VoC-RBD-reactive MBCs are present in the peripheral blood of all subjects including those that experienced asymptomatic or mild disease, provides a reason for optimism regarding the capacity of vaccination, prior infection, and/or both, to limit disease severity and transmission of variants of concern as they continue to arise and circulate.”

 

60) Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 generates T-cell memory in the absence of a detectable viral infection, Wang, 2021

“T-cell immunity is important for recovery from COVID-19 and provides heightened immunity for re-infection. However, little is known about the SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity in virus-exposed individualsreport virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory in recovered COVID-19 patients and close contactsclose contacts are able to gain T-cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 despite lacking a detectable infection.”

 

61) CD8+ T-Cell Responses in COVID-19 Convalescent Individuals Target Conserved Epitopes From Multiple Prominent SARS-CoV-2 Circulating Variants, Redd, 2021and Lee, 2021

“The CD4 and CD8 responses generated after natural infection are equally robust, showing activity against multiple “epitopes” (little segments) of the spike protein of the virus. For instance, CD8 cells responds to 52 epitopes and CD4 cells respond to 57 epitopes across the spike protein, so that a few mutations in the variants cannot knock out such a robust and in-breadth T cell responseonly 1 mutation found in Beta variant-spike overlapped with a previously identified epitope (1/52), suggesting that virtually all anti-SARS-CoV-2 CD8+ T-cell responses should recognize these newly described variants.”

 

62) Exposure to common cold coronaviruses can teach the immune system to recognize SARS-CoV-2,La Jolla, Crotty and Sette, 2020

“Exposure to common cold coronaviruses can teach the immune system to recognize SARS-CoV-2”

 

63) Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans, Mateus, 2020

“Found that the pre-existing reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 comes from memory T cells and that cross-reactive T cells can specifically recognize a SARS-CoV-2 epitope as well as the homologous epitope from a common cold coronavirus. These findings underline the importance of determining the impacts of pre-existing immune memory in COVID-19 disease severity.”

 

64) Longitudinal observation of antibody responses for 14 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, Dehgani-Mobaraki, 2021

“Better understanding of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 after natural infection might provide valuable insights into the future implementation of vaccination policies. Longitudinal analysis of IgG antibody titers was carried out in 32 recovered COVID-19 patients based in the Umbria region of Italy for 14 months after Mild and Moderately-Severe infectionstudy findings are consistent with recent studies reporting antibody persistency suggesting that induced SARS-CoV-2 immunity through natural infection, might be very efficacious against re-infection (>90%) and could persist for more than six months. Our study followed up patients up to 14 months demonstrating the presence of anti-S-RBD IgG in 96.8% of recovered COVID-19 subjects.”

 

65) Humoral and circulating follicular helper T cell responses in recovered patients with COVID-19, Juno, 2020

“Characterized humoral and circulating follicular helper T cell (cTFH) immunity against spike in recovered patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We found that S-specific antibodies, memory B cells and cTFH are consistently elicited after SARS-CoV-2 infection, demarking robust humoral immunity and positively associated with plasma neutralizing activity.”

 

66) Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals, Robbiani, 2020

“149 COVID-19-convalescent individualsantibody sequencing revealed the expansion of clones of RBD-specific memory B cells that expressed closely related antibodies in different individuals. Despite low plasma titres, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on the RBD neutralized the virus with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) as low as 2 ng ml1.”

 

67) Rapid generation of durable B cell memory to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins in COVID-19 and convalescence, Hartley, 2020

“COVID-19 patients rapidly generate B cell memory to both the spike and nucleocapsid antigens following SARS-CoV-2 infectionRBD- and NCP-specific IgG and Bmem cells were detected in all 25 patients with a history of COVID-19.”

 

68) Had COVID? You’ll probably make antibodies for a lifetime, Callaway, 2021

“People who recover from mild COVID-19 have bone-marrow cells that can churn out antibodies for decadesthe study provides evidence that immunity triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection will be extraordinarily long-lasting.”

 

69) A majority of uninfected adults show preexisting antibody reactivity against SARS-CoV-2, Majdoubi, 2021

In greater Vancouver Canada, “using a highly sensitive multiplex assay and positive/negative thresholds established in infants in whom maternal antibodies have waned, we determined that more than 90% of uninfected adults showed antibody reactivity against the spike protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), N-terminal domain (NTD), or the nucleocapsid (N) protein from SARS-CoV-2.”

 

70) SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in healthy donors and patients with COVID-19, Braun, 2020

“The results indicate that spike-protein cross-reactive T cells are present, which were probably generated during previous encounters with endemic coronaviruses.”

 

71) Naturally enhanced neutralizing breadth against SARS-CoV-2 one year after infection, Wang, 2021

“A cohort of 63 individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 assessed at 1.3, 6.2 and 12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infectionthe data suggest that immunity in convalescent individuals will be very long lasting.”

 

72) One Year after Mild COVID-19: The Majority of Patients Maintain Specific Immunity, But One in Four Still Suffer from Long-Term Symptoms, Rank, 2021

“Long-lasting immunological memory against SARS-CoV-2 after mild COVID-19.”

 

73) IDSA, 2021“Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 following natural infection can persist for at least 11 monthsnatural infection (as determined by a prior positive antibody or PCR-test result) can confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.”

 

74) Assessment of protection against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 among 4 million PCR-tested individuals in Denmark in 2020: a population-level observational study, Holm Hansen, 2021

Denmark, “during the first surge (ie, before June, 2020), 533381 people were tested, of whom 11727 (2·20%) were PCR positive, and 525339 were eligible for follow-up in the second surge, of whom 11068 (2·11%) had tested positive during the first surge. Among eligible PCR-positive individuals from the first surge of the epidemic, 72 (0·65% [95% CI 0·510·82]) tested positive again during the second surge compared with 16819 (3·27% [3·223·32]) of 514271 who tested negative during the first surge (adjusted RR 0·195 [95% CI 0·1550·246]).”

 

 

What can be concluded from the above evidence? That vaccinating our troops and police (and children), and in fact COVID recovered persons (and forcing/mandating vaccines), has no scientific or medical basis and can be extremely harmful and can even be deadly. The collective literature evidence we presented above unequivocally establishes (and is empirically undeniable) that protective immunity following natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 is durable and long lasting. 

This push therefore to separate society into two groups (vaccinated versus unvaccinated) is destructive and without any scientific basis. This push to mandate the vaccine and put those who chose not to vaccinate into unemployment is inexcusable. We must allow persons to make this personal decision to vaccinate or not based on their own values and preferences and needs. The science clearly shows that naturally acquired immunity is similar to or even superior to vaccine induced immunity by these non-sterilizing COVID-19 vaccines, and affords longer lasting and stronger protection against infection. Our military and police must be allowed to make the decisions independently, unafraid of any retribution or loss of income or privileges. The arguments why the military and police must be vaccinated (and forced and mandated) with these vaccines are nonsense and have no medical or scientific basis. 

 

 

 

 

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